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Vagrant on Mac

What is Vagrant

Vagrant is a tool for building and managing virtual machine environments in a single workflow. With an easy-to-use workflow and focus on automation, Vagrant lowers development environment setup time, increases production parity, and makes the "works on my machine" excuse a relic of the past.

In this tutorial we will dive into Vagrant which is used to create isolated & portable development environments.
We will go into each part of the Vagrantfile, do some exploring via SSH and create a LAMP stack box (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP).

LAMP stack and versions on this Vagrant box:

Linux - ubuntu/trusty64
Apache - apache2
MySQL - mysql-server (5.5.62-0ubuntu0.14.04.1)
PHP - PHP 7.2

Installations

Vagrant

Please download the proper package for your operating system and architecture.
Download - Vagrant by HashiCorp

VirtualBox

Please download VirtualBox that correspond your operating system.
Downloads – Oracle VM VirtualBox

Getting Started with Vagrant

Note: At anytime having the VirtualBox open, you can follow when the box are created, running, etc

Verify version on your terminal by running:
vagrant -v
It should display:
Vagrant 2.2.0
Note: My version is 2.2.0, but you can have any other version.

Machine Settings

The settings within config.vm modify the configuration of the machine that Vagrant manages.

Main config files:

-> config.vm.box - This file configures what box the machine - Operating system - will be brought up against.
-> config.vm.provider - Configures provider-specific configuration, which is used to modify settings which are specific to a certain provider, we use VirtualBox. (More details)
-> config.vm.network - Configures networks on the machine. Ex: IP address, Port, etc. (More details)
-> config.vm.synced_folder - Configures synced folders on the machine, so that folders on your host machine can be synced to and from the guest machine. (More details)
-> config.vm.provision - Configures provisioners on the machine, so that software (ex: LAMP Stack) can be automatically installed and configured when the machine is created. (More details)

Discover Vagrant Boxes list

Discover Vagrant Boxes - Vagrant Cloud

Creating a box

First, create a folder that will contain your vagrant data:

# new folder
mkdir my_vagrant_box
cd my_vagrant_box
# new folder
mkdir www
# Create a vagrantfile
vagrant init ubuntu/trusty64

After running the above commands vagrant init ubuntu/trusty64, you will have a new file: Vagrantfile, that contains Vagrant box configuration.

Since we would like to create a LAMP stack in this box we will update this new Vagrantfile file and replace the current content with the follow:
Vagrantfile

# -*- mode: ruby -*-
# vi: set ft=ruby :

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
  
  # Box Settings
  config.vm.box = "ubuntu/trusty64"

  # Provider Settings
  config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |vb|
    # vb.memory = 2048
    # vb.cpus = 4
  end

  # Network Settings
  # config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080
  # config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080, host_ip: "127.0.0.1"
  config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.33.10"

  # Folder Settings
  config.vm.synced_folder "www/", "/var/www/html"
  
  config.vm.provision "shell", path: "bootstrap.sh"
end

Next its content that will instruct what can be install & upgrade.
Create a new file with the following content:
bootstrap.sh

# Update Packages
apt-get update
# Upgrade Packages
apt-get upgrade

# Basic Linux Stuff
apt-get install -y git

# Apache
apt-get install -y apache2

# Enable Apache Mods
a2enmod rewrite

#Add Onrej PPA Repo
apt-add-repository ppa:ondrej/php
apt-get update

# Install PHP
apt-get install -y php7.2

# PHP Apache Mod
apt-get install -y libapache2-mod-php7.2

# Restart Apache
service apache2 restart

# PHP Mods
apt-get install -y php7.2-common
apt-get install -y php7.2-mcrypt
apt-get install -y php7.2-zip

# Set MySQL Pass
debconf-set-selections <<< 'mysql-server mysql-server/root_password password root'
debconf-set-selections <<< 'mysql-server mysql-server/root_password_again password root'

# Install MySQL
apt-get install -y mysql-server

# PHP-MYSQL lib
apt-get install -y php7.2-mysql

# Restart Apache
sudo service apache2 restart

The file structure and filenames should be:

./boostrapp.sh
./Vagrantfile
./www/

Finally running Up And SSH

It is time to boot your first Vagrant environment.
Run the following from your terminal:
vagrant up

After finish you will have a virtual machine running Ubuntu.
To prove that it is running, you can SSH into the machine:
vagrant ssh
This command will drop you into a full-fledged SSH session.
The SSH session can be terminated with CTRL+D or type exit.

On browser

Once the machine is running, load http://92.168.33.10 in your browser. You should see a web page that is being served from the virtual machine that was automatically setup by Vagrant.

Commands: vagrant

Full list: Command-Line Interface - Vagrant by HashiCorp

Some commands:
vagrant up -> This command creates and configures guest machines according to your Vagrantfile.
vagrant ssh -> This will SSH into a running Vagrant machine and give you access to a shell.
vagrant suspend -> This suspends the guest machine Vagrant is managing, rather than fully shutting it down or destroying it.
vagrant resume ->This resumes a Vagrant managed machine that was previously suspended, perhaps with the suspend command.
vagrant destroy -> This command stops the running machine Vagrant is managing and destroys all resources that were created during the machine creation process.
vagrant reload -> This command is usually required for changes made in the Vagrantfile to take effect. After making any modifications to the Vagrantfile, a reload should be called.

Command: vagrant box

This is the command used to manage (add, remove, etc.) boxes.
The main functionality of this command is exposed via even more subcommands:
add
list
outdated
prune
remove
repackage
update

Vagrant on Mac
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